Mt Zhongnan
Mt Zhongnan

When a Chinese elderly celebrates his or her birthday, the most common congratulatory messages would often be a couplet “福如东海长流水,寿比南山不老松”, meaning “may your fortune be as boundless as the East Sea and may you live as long as pines in Mt Zhongnan (终南山)”.

What Is So Special with the Pines in Mt Zhongnan?

Or it may should be asked what is so special with Mt Zhongnan that enables pines to live much longer than in any other places in China?

Before answering this question, let me tell you a little story.

One day in 1903 in a thatched hut at a secluded corner in the Mt Zhongnan, a monk in his 60s put a taro he grew from a vegetable field next to his dwelling into a cauldron. While waiting for his only meal of the day, he sat down cross-legged on a cushion placed on the dirt floor.

It was about two weeks before the Chinese New Year. Winter was in full swing and the entire Mt Zhongnan was covered with thick snow. In a setting that was almost soundless and colourless, the monk’s mind felt pure and clear, and quickly slipped into deep meditation.

Sometime later, he was woken up by subtle yet penetrating clatters from qing (罄), a traditional Chinese musical instrument made of stone. His monk friends came to the hut and used qing to bring him out of meditative state.

“Happy New Year!” they greeted him.

He didn’t know how to reply.

“Have you taken your meal?” they asked.

“Not yet, but the taro in the cauldron should be well cooked by now.”

One of the visitors lifted the cauldron cover, and frowned. Others stretched their neck to take a peep, all ended up staring at one another without saying a word.

“What’s up?” the host was baffled and prepared to rise to his feet.

“Since when did you begin to meditate?” one questioned.

“Minutes ago.”

“Are you sure?”

“Quite so.”

“Check the cauldron for yourself then.”

He did, and saw it was covered with an inch of mould.

“You must had been in meditation for half a month at least,” they concluded. And all laughed.

Monk Xuyuan's former lodge
This is the site where Monk Xuyun’s hut was located in which he conducted 18-day meditation without a break. Now three meditation houses have been erected there by his disciples. (photo by 踏遍青山)

It turned out the monks who lived in nearby huts were concerned about his welfare after he was absent for a lengthy period. In fact, they were not the first ones to see him when he meditated. Outside his hut on the snow field, tigers’ footprints were everywhere.

This remarkable monk was no other but Xuyun (虚云, 1840 – 1959), one of the most influential Chan masters in Chinese history, and the founder and first honorary president of the Buddhist Association of China that was established in 1953.

In the next sixty years since his 18-day meditation session, Monk Xuyun repeatedly recalled his experience in Mt Zhongnan, which he believed had helped him to easily identify and purge thought junkies from his default system, the subconsciousness, through consistent and uninterrupted monitor of his mind activities.

Why Mt Zhongnan Has Such a Potent Power?

Ancient hermits in Mt Zhongnan
Ancient hermits in Mt Zhongnan: A Buddhist monk (in yellow gown), a Daoist (in red robe) and a Confucius scholar (in white outfit)

Mt Zhongnan’s power on people’s mental state certainly has a lot to do with its geographic location and physical formation. But there’s something more than that.

About 3,000 years ago, a man called Jiang Shang (姜尚) studied tangible and intangible Dao in Mt Zhongnan until he was nearly 80 when he met King Wen of Zhou (I Ching’s formulator). Together the pair laid the foundation for Chinese culture. Then he went on to become the co-initiator of Daoism, the originator of Chinese art of war, and the inventor of China’s spy techniques.

500 years later, a border guard commander called Yixi studied skies in the Mt Zhongnan and detected the arrival of Lao Tzu. When the man emerged, he got all facilities and excuses ready to persuade the traveller to stay and teach him Dao, and that is how Lao Tzu’s lecture notes were crafted and later published under the title “The Book of Virtue”.

Another 300 years later, Zhang Liang (张良), one of China’s best strategists and statesmen, retired into Mt Zhongnan after having pushed China into a golden era, Han Dynasty, and successfully reinvented himself as a legendary Daoist.

Another 900 years later, Li Bai (Li Bo), China’s most acclaimed poet, went into Mt Zhongnan cultivating Daoism and martial arts. It was there he befriended a Daoist nun who happened to be a princess and this unexpected encounter paved way for Li Bai to be appointed as the cultural consultant to Tang emperor, which to some degree helped Tang become the most advanced dynasty in poetry.

A 100-year old Daoist meditating
A 100-year old Daoist meditating under pine trees (photo from

In Taoist mythology, of 100 men and women who successfully migrated from human domain to the immortals’ paradise in one lifetime without by passing death-rebirth process, 70 were completed their transition in Mt Zhongnan.

For thousands of years, Mt Zhongnan was the premium meditation ground of China’s best cultivators, it is not hard to picture how much top-quality info energies the place has accumulated.

Shennong’s Herbal Classic (神农本草经), the earliest pharmacopoeia in Chinese history, praises pine needles to be the food of immortals, because among all plants, pines are the most sensitive to the quality of the energies. Which is why pines in this mountain live longer than in any other places in China.

But how about now?

Are There Still Hermits in the Mt Zhongnan Today?

Meditate on Rock in Mt Zhongnan (photo from 宋艳刚)
Meditate on Rock in Mt Zhongnan (photo from 宋艳刚)

Fortunately, the answer is yes. And in fact, there are probably more hermits calling Mt Zhongnan home than any other time in history. Although the modern hermits come from many walks of life – among them there are writers, businessmen, college students and traditional culture lovers – the majority of them are still Daoists and Buddhists, with little to no change in their way of cultivation and their way of living from the time when Monk Xuyun did his 18-day meditation, when Li Bai wielded his sword, and even when Lao Tzu wrote his Book of Virtue.

The only supposed aberration might be that for several decades these hermits were completely forgotten by the world outside, as the nation was captured by politics, science and material pursuits.

It was until American author Bill Porter published his work Road To Heaven, documenting the lives of the Daoist and Buddhist monks and nuns in Mt Zhongshan, Chinese people began to realize there is still a strange species called hermit out there in somewhere.

Since then, Mt Zhongnan has been turned into a happy hunting ground for curiosity. Some from overseas, but majority were local Chinese, yet nearly all ended up seeing no one apart from few villagers and many hermit-hunters.

Except one man.

A Buddhist nuns' courtyard (photo from 一心)
A Buddhist nuns’ courtyard (photo from 一心)

Zhang Jianfeng is a Xi’an native so it is quite convenient for him to keep mucking around the areas. At the beginning, like most hermit-hunters, he would walk for whole day without meeting a single soul; and when he was lucky to find a hut or cave dwelling, no one would ever answer his call.

Later he learned most hermits just dash away whenev
er they spot a visitor approaching or ignore the door knocking when it is not conducted in a pre-arranged manner.

He eventually became a hermit himself and successfully interviewed 600 hermits, which he published on his magazine Question on Dao (问道).

According to an estimate, there are at least 5,000 hermits in Mt Zhongnan by 2014, and an increasing number of young people are joining the rank.

Following is just a glimpse of the vast yet hidden hermit community in Mt Zhongnan.

Professional Hermits in Mt Zhongnan

A 100-year Old Daoist

100-year Old Daoist Zhang Zhishun plays kungfu
100-year Old Daoist Zhang Zhishun plays kungfu

Daoist Zhang Zhishun (张至顺道长) is the abbot of the grand Jade Toad Temple in Hainan province, but he still keeps returning to Mt Zhongnan cultivating at least 6 months each year. “In nowhere you can find such a potent qi,” he explained.

He practiced Daoism and studied Chinese medicine since the age of 17, and is the inventor of a new acupuncture technique “Five Tigers Seize the Sheep”, that is best for tumor treatment. During each session, 5 needles representing five agents and ten heavenly stems are inserted in the area corresponding to the tumor, and 12 more needles standing for four directions and twelve earthly branches in the periphery.

100-year old Daoist Zhang demonstrates medical massage

“Dao cultivators are all doctors,” Daoist Zhang asserted. It is because unless one knows his physical body structure and invisible qi system clearly, and understands how they work respectively and interact with each other and with external environment, there is no way he can practice Daoism property.

“One of my masters could tell you what kind of illness you are going to have three years later,” he recalled. In fact it is nothing uncommon for a well-cultivated Daoist to detect problems in the body of a person he just meets and know how long this person is going to live.

“No matter what kungfu you are practice (be it Daoism or Buddhism), if you die in hospital, you basically have failed your cultivation,” Daoist Zhang summoned up his observation.

An Old Buddhist Monk with New Teeth

Monk Puguang from Mt ZhongnanPuguang (普光法师) became a novice since eight-month old. His parents were killed in the war and he was brought up by a Shaolin monk who taught him to recite Buddhist mantra as soon as he started to talk. When he grew older, he was trained in whole set of Shaolin kungfu, that include Virgin’s Kungfu (童子功), Golden Bell Cover (金钟罩), Iron Shirt (铁布衫) and Iron Palm (铁砂掌). Later he heard the legendary stories of Mt Zhongnan, and with his disciple he walked several months from remote northeast region to this giant meditation centre and settled in a cave previously occupied by a tiger family, not far from Monk Xuyun’s hut.

Living in total isolation with no land for them to cultivate allowed him to focus on one thing, and one thing only, that is to recite Shurangama Mantra. With 2,620 characters, Shurangama Mantra is the longest among all Buddhist mantras and considered the most difficult to memorize, but he recites 108 times each day. The intensive cultivation at a material scarce yet qi abundant Mt Zhongnan has transformed not only his mental state but his physical condition as well. He has a new set of teeth growing after his old ones lost, his white hair and beard turned black again, and he only needs to sleep two hours a day.

More Snapshots of Professional Hermits in Mt Zhongnan

A temple hidden in deep mountain
A temple hidden in deep mountain
 Little meditation huts on the clifftops built by Daoists
Little meditation huts on the clifftops built by Daoists
 A small temple under cliff built by Buddhist monks
A small temple under cliff built by Buddhist monks
 A Daoist nun fetching water from a pond
A Daoist nun fetching water from a pond
 A Buddhist nun washing clothes in a stream
A Buddhist nun washing clothes in a stream

A Buddhist monk enjoys his steamed buns
 A Daoist enjoys his hand-made noodle
A Daoist enjoys his hand-made noodle
Immortal's Soup
Immortal’s Soup – a typical dish of Daoists with ingredients include black fungus, dried daylilies, mushrooms, pine nuts, potatoes, sweet potatoes and green cabbages
Two Buddhist monks meditating in their cave dwelling
Two Buddhist monks meditating in their cave dwelling
Transmitting Sound through Empty Valley
In the snow field a Daoist practicing a kungfu called
Transmitting Sound through Empty Valley (空谷传音)
Transmitting Sound through Empty Valley
Transmitting Sound through Empty Valley
A Daoist meditating in a cave
A Daoist meditating in a cave

Casual Hermits in Mt Zhongnan

Not all hermits in today’s Mt Zhongshan follow established paths of cultivation under the guidance of their masters. Some are just casual cultivators picking one meditation technique or another from here or there to clean up clusters in their mind and their body that they accumulated during their time living in cities. They call themselves “modern hermits”.

A Modern Hermit Centre

The meditation room in the hermit centre
The meditation room in the hermit centre

This center is built by Zhang Jianfeng, the owner of magazine Question On Dao. People can come and go as they wish, pay or not to pay for the food and other expenses as they like, and practice meditation, martial arts, calligraphy, classic music, ink painting, medicinal herb collection or even firewood chopping as they prefer.

A former businessman preparing tea at the veranda for his fellow "modern hermits"
A former businessman preparing tea at the veranda for his fellow “modern hermits”
Group discussion on the veranda in the evening
Group discussion on the veranda in the evening

The veranda is the “modern hermits”‘ beloved spot for meditation, tea break and group discussion. From there they have a panorama view of the sky above and the valley below, while full-length windows protect them from wild weather condition typical in the mountain areas.

A Classic School Run by Hermits

Five years ago, Chinese couple Mr & Mrs Bai closed their business in Xi’an and with their friends built a private school in Mt Zhongnan for their children. The students receive the classic Chinese education and wear traditional Chinese clothing.

Study in natural environment which they share with a goat
Study in natural environment which they share with a goat
Girls are taking martial arts lesson
Girls are taking martial arts lesson
Students practicing calligraphy

More Snapshots of Casual Hermits in Mt Zhongnan

A Daoist, a dog and casual hermits having a dinner party in the snow field
A Daoist, a dog and casual hermits having a dinner party in the snow field
A lifestyle hermit practicing calligraphy in the spring field under peach trees
A lifestyle hermit practicing calligraphy in the spring field under peach trees
A group of lifestyle hermits holding an outdoor concert in later summer afternoon
A group of lifestyle hermits holding an outdoor concert in later summer afternoon
A kungfu hermit playing his flute from the top of a cliff in a crisp autumn air
A kungfu hermit playing his flute from the top of a cliff in a crisp autumn air
An ex-businessman engaging in a direct dialogue with the cosmos, the external manifestation of his own internal world.
An ex-businessman engaging in a direct dialogue with the cosmos, the external manifestation of his own internal world.

There are also people who choose to stay in Mt Zhongnan to do their private projects. A research hermit works on comparison study between astronomy, Buddhism and Daoism and has carved his findings on a stone.

A Short Documentary: Entering Mt Zhongnan

The documentary is produced by a Shenzhen film company in 1999. It is so short because after two days hard searching in the mountain they only managed to find three Buddhist lodges with not a single Daoist hermit discovered.

The Following Is an Introduction of This 8-minute Chinese Film:

The film crew arrived at Jiawutai area where Monk Xuyun’s hut was located, and met a villager.

Crew: Is there still any monk living there?
Villager: Oh yeah.
Crew: Can you lead the way for us?
Villager: It’s far, very far.
Crew: We don’t mind.
Villager: Ok, let’s go then.

After two hours ride on horse and eight hours trudge on foot, they finally spotted a hut in a valley. There was no path to and from that dwelling, and when they eventually reached the house they found there was only one Buddhist nun living there.

Crew: Are you scared to live here alone?
Nun: What can be scared of? I’m not afraid of death, what else can frighten me? I read sutra during the day and recite Shurangama mantra at midnight, I know I’m safe.  
: What’s your purpose to stay here alone?
Nun: To learn and practice Buddha’s teaching. I’ve made a vow I will not go down the mountain before I know who I actually am.

When they climbed onto the Lion’s Cave where Monk Xuyun once lived, the sky was about to grow dark. And a novice told them the monk was in the middle of seven-day continuation meditation.

But Xuyun’s disciple’s disciple kindly broke his session and sat with the crew around a bonfire to answer their questions (because no spare bed or even mat for the guests to sleep).

Crew: What the winter looks like?
Monk A: You mean how we cultivate in the winter?
Crew: Oh yeah, that’s right.
Monk A: Winter actually is the best season to cultivate Buddhist kungfu. In Autumn, we stock enough food for the winter which lasts for half a year from middle October to March, by then snow blocks all the tracks, no one can come into the mountain and no one in the mountain can go out. The world is so quiet and we can get into lengthy and deep meditation.

They left Lion’s Cave early next morning and found one more hermit when the sun rose spectacularly from behind the mountain ranges. The monk was an abbot of a big Buddhist temple at busterling Zhejiang province along China’s east coastline.

Crew: Why did you leave your temple for Mt Zhongnan?
Monk B: Nowadays most temples become tourist attractions which are no longer suitable for cultivation. Of course, Buddhism is not hidden in this mountain but in our own heart, and whatever we do – sleeping, eating, walking and working – can be part of our Buddhist practice. But to someone like me, who is yet to gain a strong Buddhist kungfu, he can easily be swayed by the external environment, so he needs a more nurturing place to work on his mind and heart.
Crew: What is your goal here?
Monk B: My goal is to find out my true self and to be free from environmental constraints.



29 thought on “Modern Chinese Hermits”
  1. Loved the story. These hermits have very little but I’m willing to bet they are some of the happiest people on the planet. They have such epic beautiful views in the mountains.
    I’m trying to find more information about the modern hermit centre mentioned in the story. Is it not listed online anywhere? I would like to know more about this place.

    1. Most hermits in Zhongnan Mountains belong to their Buddhist or Daoist temples. For some laymen, they would build their own house or repair a deserted rundown hut or just find a cave. The living conditions are very harsh over there, particularly during winter.

      1. Hi have a few questions. Best story i ever read thank u so much. Do most monks from the mountain live so long and general All monks whats the key. And did read there religion

        1. The cultivators following either Daoist or Buddhist disciplines in the mountain (and anywhere else) are like that formally enrolled students studying on a full-time basis. Some students progress well and eventually obtain PhD while others might keep repeating the basic courses and even drop out.
          Put this way, Mt. Zhongshan is like a campus, but the outcome of your study very much depends on the quality of your school, the skill of your teacher and your own background and effort.
          The immediate goal of both paths is to be able to exist without a tangible body. When you are capable of doing that, congratulations, you’ve graduated with a bachelor’s degree and you usually can decide when to die.

  2. I really like reading through an article that can make people
    think. Also, thanks for allowing me to comment!

  3. Dear Fisher,
    That truly was a fascinating article that I read at your website. What absolutely blew me away had to do with how long many of these Chinese monks lived here on Earth. When you told the first story of the monk named Zuyen, I had to triple-check the years of his birth and death to make sure that I read it correctly: 1840 – 1959. Perhaps many of these incredible individuals know the keys which allow them to have lived for so incredibly long – especially considering the average lifespan here in the U.S. is not 80 years old!
    Perhaps it is because they are such peace within themselves, whereas many of us allow stress and worry regarding money, health, family, the world at large, to seep into our beings.
    I also loved how the one 113-year-old Buddhist monk had a 104 gentleman as his disciple. Incredible!
    All in all this is a very thought-provoking article. Have you personally spent your life studying the ancient religion coming from that part of the world?

    1. Hi Jeff, you are correct, that the first monk featured in the post did have lived for 120 years. When he was 112 years old, he was tortured for three days by a group of mobs and his ribs were broken, but he recovered without going to hospital and kept living for another 9 years and went on to founded China’s Buddhist Association.
      Then one day he said it was time for him to leave, and he gave the date of his departure. By that time he looked pretty well so no one believed his words. But he began to make arrangements for Chinese Buddhist affairs and his followers’ further cultivation after him.
      When that particular day arrived, he looked and acted just like any other day. He asked his close disciples to his room to receive final instructions. After he said all that he needed to say, he reclined on his bed and closed his eyes. His disciples thought he might just want to take a short break, yet that turned out to be an eternal break.
      This story might sound quite incredible and a bit far away from us. There was a more recent incident about a Buddhist master from Shanghai. He was not a monk. He went to university and worked as a post office chief, but otherwise lived strictly according to Buddhist rules for monks. In the 1990s when he was in his advanced years of 90s, he visited the United States and gave lectures to his followers.
      Then one day he said he was going to leave this life on Chinese New Year 2000. When the new year approached, many of his followers went to stay with him at his home. On new year’s Eve, they watched the new year’s television special while eating (no meat and fish), drinking (no alcohol), and laughing happily together. The next day was Chinese New Year’s Day 2000, he got up early in the morning as usual, gave some lectures, offered some advice and took a nap after lunch, then sat down to watch a soccer game on TV with his followers (he was a soccer fan). When the game ended, he died. I had lived very close to his home for years. Pity I wasn’t aware of all these happenings by then.
      Yes, I do practice myself. Both men are my mentors – I’ve found all answers to my questions about life and beyond from their writings. Both men were highly accomplished in Chinese literature and very knowledgeable abut modern science, that allowed them to convey their message effectively 🙂

  4. Fascinating article and very interesting stories. Nice to see that some people still live this way in our modern fast paced world. I love the photos, Mt Zhongnan looks amazing and I can’t beleive how good those old guys look for their age. Sometime ago I started to learn Tai Chi which includes some medication techniques. Unfortunatley I moved areas so had to give it up, but I remember the enhanced energy you feel during and after practicing. Has to be one for the bucket list to visit this area in China.

    1. Hi Neil, Tai Chi is indeed one of the best gifts from Daoism, which combines both inner (meditation) and outer (martial arts) kung-fus and is suitable virtually for everybody in any age group. Hope one day you’ll get a chance to continue your wonderful practice.
      As the Chinese become more money-focused and the entire nation strives towards economic success with little time for anything else, a counterbalancing force has emerged. Nowadays more individuals opt out of the mainstream lifestyle and return to the old ways of living than at any time in history. The Chinese businessman, featured in the article with a photo of him sitting on a giant rock conducting a dialogue with the cosmos, has recently made a great leap from a lifestyle hermit to a professional hermit – he has been formally ordained as a Buddhist monk.

  5. I found your post to be very interesting. I meditate daily and am amazed to learn about this. It almost inspires me to travel there and become a hermit myself. I don’t think I’m quite ready for that though. Thanks for the great stories and information. I especially enjoyed looking at all the pictures you provided. Great article!

    1. Hi Victor, how nice you medicate daily. Travelling around the mountains and having an opportunity to live like a hermit to meditate day and night is also my dream ….. I hope one day my dream would become true, even just for a few months, that will make my this life very fulfilled 🙂

  6. I am fascinated by your story. I had never thought of before. You have made me comprehend there can be more than one way to live our life, and being a hermit may not be a too bad idea.

      1. well the question setats that you know everything you know right now before making your decisions.Anyhow knowing all that.. It still doesn’t affect me much.. As i’m still responsible for my actions and my choices and there is no one else to blame if things either go well or badly.. In the end we are each responsible for our choices in our lives. If things don’t go our way.. shit happens.. ya know..
        At some point we made a choice somewhere that led us to whatever happened.. For instance.. I wouldn’t be in the mess i’m in now had I not married hubby.. but that’s neither here nor there.. There is a long line of what ifs in every situation.
        It doesn’t change much knowing because you are still responsible for your actions and choices in life.. Knowing you could have chosen differently.. really doesnt change much in the long run.
        Hell there are a trillion things we could have each chosen differently in our lives but didn’t. why? because at the time they worked for us some how.. the only thing we do not have control over is outside forces in our lives.. (other people and their circumstances) BUT we have control over how we react to the way they affect our lives.. regardless of if its positive or negative impacts they and their circumstances/actions make.. Anyhow.. I might have totally taken the question wrong.. but that’s what’s great about philosophical questions..

  7. What are interesting stories, Taoists or Daoists (maybe they are same?) and Buddhist monks. Is it hard to visit that mountain?

    1. Not really, you can go to Xian (where terracotta warriors are) either by flight or train, then get a bus to enter the mountain which is just right next to the city. But I wouldn’t advise you to go there alone.

  8. Amazing posts from you, man. I really like what you have presented here, particularly
    those photos, just amazing.

  9. Hello there, had alert to your article through Google, and found that this subject is truly fascinating.
    I’ll love to hear more stories about Chinese hermits in future.

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